Most doors are hung on cast-iron butt hinges. These are made in a range of sizes; the best average size for doors is 400mm. For heavy doors, it is advisable to use three hinges. This also helps to prevent warping and spreads the load. Where three hinges are fitted on standard doors, slightly smaller hinges can be used.
Pressed-steel butts are less strong than cast-iron ones and are more likely to give trouble through rusting.
The top and bottom hinges should be fitted to line up visually with the edges of the rails.
Prop the door into the frame, again on wedges, to hold it steady. Make a mark on both the door and the frame 150mm from the top and 230mm from the bottom. These will then line up with standard top and bottom rails. If an intermediate hinge is being used, mark a position halfway between these points.
Remove the door, take a hinge and draw round one leaf with a marking knife, in turn on the stile and on the door frame. Position the hinges inside the marked pencil lines. Set the position so that the hinge knuckle just clears the door and the frame.
Next, set a marking gauge to the thickness of the hinge flap and mark the front surface of the door and the frame for depth.
Hinges are always hung on the door first, so first cut the slot for this recess. To fit a hinge, chisel along the marked lines on the door. Make a series of cuts across the grain, to the depth of the gauge line, then pare, with the grain, to remove the waste. Turn the chisel bevel-side downwards to chop diagonally, which makes it easier to remove waste wood.
The leaves of cast-iron butts are normally made to taper slightly. When the outer surfaces of the leaves are held parallel, there is a clearance space between them.
The bottom of the recess should slope slightly to correspond with any taper of the leaf of the hinge, so that this fits flush with the surface of the wood.
The door should be placed in the opening so that the loose part of the hinge is on the inner surface of the frame. Position a wedge beneath the door and a piece of packing, just under 3mm, above the top rail. This brings the door up to its correct position.
10. November 2011 by admin
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